Nobel prize for elucidating the molecular structure of dna dating goor
However, Mendel and Miescher paved the way for the discovery and characterisation of DNA, and allowed researchers to determine that DNA contains genes, the individual units that encode the different functions required for life and that mediate the transmission of traits across generations.
After Miescher’s isolation of the curious substance, other researchers then took up the baton and got to grips with characterising its chemical structure.
James Watson discussed these implications in relation to the replication of viruses at his 1967 lecture at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: But how are large molecules of DNA put together from their nucleotide building-blocks?
Shortly after the seismic findings of Watson, Crick and Wilkins, two men, Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg, discovered the enzymatic process in which DNA is synthesised from nucleotides.
They shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959.
A student of Thomas Morgan, George Beadle, and Edward Tatum were responsible for another great leap forward: using X-rays to mutate the DNA of the bread mould Neurospora crassa led them to propose the famous “one gene-one enzyme hypothesis”, i.e., that each gene encodes one enzyme involved in biochemical reactions inside the cell.
In 1866, a German-speaking monk named Gregor Johann Mendel from today’s Czech Republic publishes a scientific treatise concerning the inheritance of traits in peas……five years later, a Swiss researcher called Friedrich Miescher isolates a mysterious phosphate-rich substance from the nuclei of white blood cells, which he christens “nuclein”.
These two discoveries did not appear to be connected to each other; in any case, neither work made great waves at the time.
The experiments of Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall Nirenberg revealed the triplet genetic code that is contained in DNA, and then transcribed into RNA and which encodes amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.
She had concluded that the phosphate molecules in DNA were located on the outer surface of the DNA molecule, and also made estimates of the amount of water that was to be found in it.