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Some of these rocks are sedimentary, and include minerals which are themselves as old as 4.1 to 4.2 billion years.Rocks of this age are relatively rare, however rocks that are at least 3.5 billion years in age have been found on North America, Greenland, Australia, Africa, and Asia.A young-Earther would object to all of the "assumptions" listed above.However, the test for these assumptions is the plot of the data itself.A plot is constructed of Pb-206/Pb-204 versus Pb-207/Pb-204.
The young-Earth argument goes something like this: helium-4 is created by radioactive decay (alpha particles are helium nuclei) and is constantly added to the atmosphere.The most direct means for calculating the Earth's age is a Pb/Pb isochron age, derived from samples of the Earth and meteorites.This involves measurement of three isotopes of lead (Pb-206, Pb-207, and either Pb-208 or Pb-204).For example: Also note that the meteorite ages (both when dated mainly by Rb-Sr dating in groups, and by multiple means individually) are in exact agreement with the solar system "model lead age" produced earlier.
Young-Earthers have several methods which they claim to give "upper limits" to the age of the Earth, much lower than the age calculated above (usually in the thousands of years).(I believe this argument was originally put forth by Mormon young-Earther Melvin Cook, in a letter to the editor which was published in .) But helium can and does escape from the atmosphere, at rates calculated to be nearly identical to rates of production.