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14-Aug-2020 14:54

However, as the basic principles of relative dating progressed during the course of the 19th cent., investigators were able to correctly determine the relative age of many archaeological and geological materials.

Igneous masses are dated according to whether they caused metamorphism in the surrounding rock (proof of emplacement in preexisting rock) or whether sediments were deposited on them after they were formed.Thus, Sir Arthur Evans was able to establish an accurate absolute chronology for the ancient civilizations of Crete and Greece through the use of Egyptian trade objects that appeared in his excavations—a technique known as cross-dating.In dendrochronology, the age of wood can be determined through the counting of the number of annual ringsannual rings,the growth layers of wood that are produced each year in the stems and roots of trees and shrubs.According to this system, humans passed through three distinct stages of technological development, based on the primary material used to manufacture tools and weapons: the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Biological criteria can also serve as a means for relative dating.the determination of the age of an object, of a natural phenomenon, or of a series of events.